“Everything must be made as simple as possible. But not simpler.”
Albert Einstein


Biasing of BaTiO3 nanodomains
credit: R. Ignatans
Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ in air
credit: T.-H. Shen
Schematics of electrochemical chip and liquid cell enclosure
credit: R. Girod


Our mission at INE is to understand on a fundamental level the nanoscale properties of functional materials using in situ transmission electron microscopy techniques. We focus on nucleation and growth, phase transformations, surface reconstructions, and degradation mechanisms of nanostructures and we probe how the nanomaterials properties are affected by changes in temperature, electric field, and gaseous and/or liquid environment. We develop the techniques in order to dynamically observe the changes as they happen during real-time operation of their bulk counterparts. Such measurements have important implications on the design and development of modern technologies including electrochemical storage systems and computing devices.